Gamelan Music Instruments - Everlasting Traditional Music Instruments from Indonesia

Posted by Seto El Kahfi on Saturday, 9 February 2013

Gamelan Music InstrumentsGamelan is a musical ensemble that usually highlight metallophone, xylophone, drums, and gongs. The term gamelan refers to the instrument / tool, which is a unified whole that is realized and pounded together. The word gamelan comes from the Javanese language, which means "gamel" for hitting / beating, followed by a suffix that makes the noun. Gamelan orchestra are mostly in Java, Madura, Bali, and Lombok in Indonesia in a variety of sizes and shapes of ensembles. In Bali and Lombok today, and in Java through the 18th century, the term gong is more considered synonymous with gamelan.

Gamelan Music Instruments 

Gamelan music instruments is Everlasting Traditional Music Instruments from Indonesia. Emergence of gamelan preceded by Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominated Indonesia in the early days of recording history, which also represents the original art of Indonesia. 

Gamelan Music Instruments  - Everlasting Traditional Music Instruments from Indonesia
Instrument was developed to shape up like this in the time of Majapahit Kingdom. In difference to the music of India, the only impact of the Indian music of the gamelan is how menyanikannya. In Javanese mythology, the gamelan dicipatakan by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka era, the god who ruled the land of Java, with palaces on the mountain Mahendra in Medangkamulan (now Mount Lawu). Sang Hyang Guru first create a gong to summon the gods. For a more specific message and then create two gongs, and finally formed set of gamelan. 

How We can Find Gamelan Music Instruments from Indonesia?

The description of the first ensemble of musical instruments found in the temple of Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java, which has stood since the 8th century. Musical instruments such as bamboo flute, bells, kendhang in various sizes, lute, musical instruments and berdawai who swiped learned, is found in these reliefs. However, some elements in the metal instrument. However, relief of the instrument said to be the origin of the gamelan.
making gamelan orchestra is a complex process. Gamelan uses four ways of nalaan, namely slendro, pelog, “Degung” (special Sunda region, or West Java), and “madenda” (also known as the diatonic, the same as the original minor scale widely used in Europe.

The Parts of Gamelan Instruments

Javanese gamelan instruments consist of the following:

Kendang

Bonang

Bonang Successor

Demung

Saron

Peking (Gamelan)

Kenong & kethuk

Slenthem

Gender

Gong

Gambang

Rebab

Siter

Flute

Source:http://indonesiacountry.com/
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History of Indonesian Batik

Posted by Seto El Kahfi on Friday, 7 December 2012

One of cultural product which is considered a work of genius is a local batik.When the experts talk about batik, it means Indonesia or, more specifically, Java. The famous designer from the West did not hesitate to pick up inspiration from batik. 

Batik is Originally From Indonesia 

Batik is Originally From Indonesia
Emilio Pucci, the Italian designer who astonish the world in the 1960s with a striking design motif, taking into one of batik cloth and clothing design (Pucci, A Renaissance in Fashion, 1991). The designer is now a world more like Giorgio Armani, Kenzo and Paul Smith has long been impressed by the Indonesian batik and woven fabric.People of humanity is also a former South African President, Nelson Mandela, always wear a shirt made from batik Indonesia in every occasion, including state occasions.

Pattern and Kind of Indonesian Batik


As a decorating technique, batik not only in Indonesia. Establish where the origins of batik are also possibly be in vain. Iwan Tirta mention, batik evolved simultaneously in different parts of the world. However, the world recognizes that the Javanese batik is the most delicate because it has a decorative pattern of the richest, most developed coloring techniques, and technically the most perfect creation than batik from other regions.Batik is just one technique of decorating fabric that grown in Indonesia. Indonesia familiar with other techniques ie before threads are woven like a bunch of techniques.These techniques are often combined so as to produce wealth techniques to create extraordinary decoration. They are now entering the industry such as batik and fabric Iwan Tirta, Josephine Komara of Bin House or Baron Manansang of Weaving Baron, similarly said, batik, tie, jumputan and weaving techniques such as songket and striated, giving an almost unlimited opportunities in producing decoration and in the future these techniques could always meet the demands of the times. 


Pattern and Kind of Indonesian Batik
Although initially only one of batik techniques to create ornaments, but in the development of batik became very prominent compared with other techniques to create decoration.There are several reasons why more developed batik in Java. Iwan Tirta mentioned, one important reason is the batik cloth to be an alternative to woven fabrics such as belts or any other that requires a longer time in the making and is unable to meet the needs. This happens especially when the fabric meets the need for religious ceremonies.Batik as decoration and began imitating decoration formed by weaving techniques.The most obvious example is the imitation motive patola, which is a kind of double ikat cloth from Gujarat, India. The resulting bundle motif refinement patola quickly drew the interest of royal nobility Java (Central). However, the scarcity of supply, making batik artisans quickly imitate patola motif. Thus was born the motive nitik and jlamprang in Pekalongan.Other evidence cited Iwan Tirta is in areas where developing weaving, batik does not develop. Batik then also began to imitate the decorative embroidery from mainland China mainly for altar cloths and decorate the walls because of batik can repeat motifs are faster.

The Culture and Prestise Wearing Batik

Other reasons why batik survive and thrive is because batik get protection (patronage) of the palace in the past, the government of the Republic of Indonesia after birth, and an elite group of society when society increasingly dominant role.Batik-Batik batik artisans produced the best to the king in part because it is a manifestation of the artist's devotion to the Creator.Head of State is the patron when Indonesia was independent. Star Sudibjo deceased was one of batik artisans who have a place when President Sukarno ruled. Iwan Tirta then get a place when the late Mrs. Tien Soeharto humah heard of a man is not bloody understand Javanese batik. Now President Wahid is also more frequent Adurrahman wearing batik shirts in a variety show.In addition, batik still have a place among the elite of Indonesia although a Western-style dress into everyday wear. Iwan Tirta in the 1980's to introduce batik with gold leaf, and come to give color to the development of batik. Houses fabric Bin House back to excite against batik and batik cloth back into fashion. Among the younger designers of age, began to seriously pursue Carmanita batik and participate give their own color. Various batik design competition and apply it to everyday wear, held various nongovernmental organizations contributed to the persistence of batik till today.

BEFORE batik as it is now known to exist, which is a technique used to decorate with color hold a candle tonight, in Indonesia has been known for "batik" with a simpler technique. Cain simbut in Banten, and fabric ma'a from Toraja, South Sulawesi, using techniques also hold color. As a drag on the fabric color simbut used the crushed rice and sticky rice mixed with sugar water. Cain then dipped into the liquid dye made from plants. Then the rice sticky rice scraped and covered the rice sticky rice remained white like the original color of the fabric.Ma'a was first done in an isolated mountainous area, so there is a suspicion, as mentioned Iwan Tirta, Indonesia has the embryo of batik from within its own territory.One example of batik cloth is still produced and become examples of the evolution of intermediaries to shape the current batik is batik cloth-striated Tuban in East Java and some Jambi batik cloth. The shape of the dots that form a geometric pattern or plaid.Rens Heringa anthropologist who has studied Javanese batik for over 25 years in Batik from the North Coast of Java (1997) among others mention, simple motifs on simbut cloth, batik-striated Tuban or Jambi batik cloth, were also found in a variety of objects made in South Asia and Southeast Asia. 

The Similar Desing and Pattern of Batik 





The same design is also found in batik are drawn using bamboo sticks called laran, made ethnic minorities in southwest China, and ethnic minorities in the mountains of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar.Use of the night (candle) to distinguish batik is now known of the early forms of batik.Tonight provides an opportunity to produce a variety of motifs of batik in Java so that developed into the shape it is today.Techniques to create decorative cloth with color resist technique is estimated to already exist in the Islands archipelago since prehistoric times, although no example of fabric that remains today except the fabric of the 19th century. One of them is the fabric simbut contained in the National Museum.There are not many records about the development of batik technique (holding color) start to become rich Javanese batik techniques detailed and complex decoration.

International Version of Batik Like

One reason for the Javanese batik is women's work, and therefore not worth written down since the writing is the domain of men.Heringa said, although evidence of written or physical evidence of the development of batik in the early days have not been found today, but most early myths about batik already exist in about 700 AD Myth says about prince from the east coast near Surabaya Jenggala named Ox Amiluhur. Bride Amiluhur Ox, a nobleman's daughter from Coromandel, India and her ladies who are Hindu, teaches weaving, batik, and dye fabric to the people of Java. This myth survived until the son of Ox, Raden Panji Ima Kerta Pati, became king.Written records of new batik emerged hundreds of years later, in 1518, from Galuh region in the northwest of Java, in pre-Islamic.Both the myth and the first written records about batik, both located in coastal or northern coast of Java and before the entry of Islam. These areas have tremendous influences from India, China, and Persia through trade. Color resist techniques using wax (night) which may be imported from the Coromandel and Persian, has more in common visually with traditional cloth Coast, especially in the size and format.However, artisans in Java, and then develop their own fabric to match their needs so that then the techniques used in the Coromandel is only decoration is made only on one side is very different from the Javanese batik in detail, so not exactly Javanese batik originated from India. The same thing applies to the fabric of Persian kalamkari using block-printing process to get the ornament.


China also contributed to the Javanese batik at least since the time of Sultan Agung, who became the first Muslim king in Mataram (1613-1645). Sultan Agung mentioned using batik bird huk which in Chinese mythology brings good luck blessing. This story opens up the possibility of the role of Chinese immigrants in the 19th century on the coast in the spread of Islam. Alternatively, immigrants from southern China contributed to the development of batik. Women from ethnic minorities in the south and southeast China decorate their cotton fabric with color using wax resist techniques used in Java from the Ming Empire to present.Dutch colonialists began to pay attention to the batik in the 19th century. The experts at that time to make judgments about batik distorted by stating that originally centered batik from Yogyakarta and Surakarta Kingdom new spread to women artisans in the villages that make batik for commercial purposes.Rens Heringa reject that view, saying the possibility of new batik technique into the hinterland of Java after the middle of the 17th century when the Sultanate of Mataram develop and adopt a culture of Coastal. When Kertasura became the capital of the kingdom, colors and patterns change gradually becomes softer style palaces of Central Java. Batik-batik from Yogyakarta Palace and especially Surakarta and motifs derived from both, then regarded as the pinnacle work of batik and batik from another area then considered not as beautiful batik two areas that, for a very long time.So far, all made using batik canting with different size and shape refinement. Staining using a natural dye, and batik is more of a seasonal job for the family.Batik began to develop as a commercial commodity when in the late 18th-century fabric of Indian exports have fallen because of competition from European print fabric.
Batik from Coastal began to replace the fabric of Indian and Peranakan Chinese traders was instrumental in the production of and trade in batik.Peranakan traders who trade over a white cotton cloth and other materials batik maker, has a network of up to remote villages and they also lend money. They often give advance payments to encourage the production of batik by the women in the countryside. In the mid-19th century women's Indo-European and Indo-Arab coming in as a batik entrepreneur. During this period the women in the villages of Java, was working outside their villages to earn wages as batik, especially when the harvest was not successful family.Pekalongan in 1850 by collector Harmen C. Veldhuisen Batik (Batik Netherlands, Dutch Influence in Batik from Java History and Stories, 1993), has evolved as an important center of batik. In the batik industry and the division of labor occurs: the man in charge of preparing the white and colored cotton cloth, while women batik motifs determined by the buyer or copying ready-made batik wear tonight.Since the beginning of the start of commercial production of batik, batik needs can never be fulfilled. Therefore, in the early 19th century, formed a market for imitating batik cloth with print techniques imported from Europe.This fact and encourage batik traders developed a technique to speed up the production process. They then conduct various experiments, among others, using sweet potato as a stamp. Finally found stamp made of copper wire blocks that make up one block motif. However, since the stamp was making requires a lot of manpower, production of cloth should be large enough to make it economical.Veldhuisen mention one stamp can make about 200 gloves. 

Because making batik is a job for men, women forced to only be able to work to make batik.World War I brought destruction to the batik industry. White cotton imports from the Netherlands disrupted, batik price rises, and to earn money as much as possible, the batik produce as much as possible. The result is flooding the market and prices fell, while the limited supply of fabric. After World War I, the Dutch East Indies re-import the cloth in 1918 but printed batik industry improved only a moment since then affected by depression. Only those who are serving a group of elite like batik Peranakan who could survive. This causes a lot of batik lose their jobs, and then batik imported from other regions using rail when the wages of local batik became too expensive.

BATIK is a major clothing to describe a person's social position, especially during the reign of the kingdom and Dutch colonial rule. Parang motif is damaged, for example, may only be worn by the king in Yogyakarta and Surakarta. The motive, according to myth has been saved from the danger of Raden Panji and Sultan Agung also use this motif.Batik is considered to have meaning associated with birth, marriage, and death.Javanese people who died for example, the base where he lay before going to the grave covered seven of batik cloth, batik is also used to cover the body. Brides sidamukti cloth as a symbol of blessing.Iwan Tirta who calls himself as the guardian of traditional values ??batik, batik look at the future of fashion will survive as a complement to modern (Western) women in Indonesia in the form of cloth scarf (shawl) or scarf, as a batik shirt, or as a decor element. Long batik cloth in the form of kebaya worn together will only be used at certain times only.The more melunturnya-sacred elements of tradition in everyday life humans Indonesia, had an impact on the disappearance of the meaning of batik. That will develop later is really batik as decoration.Batik is a resist technique night wear any color will likely increasingly rare, especially batik. The process that takes time, especially if you want to get the batik with many colors, make batik become increasingly expensive. Batik write with such beauty in the 19th century and early 20th century, probably just a collection of objects.On the other hand, the growth of textile industry in Indonesia is also threatening the existence of batik in the sense that they reproduce without using the batik technique but using a technique of batik print. Lay people may be fooled by the "batik" like this batik cloth could be "cheap".

One of the Javanese batik making is different from other local batik is isen-isen which became the main motive background that the outline is divided into geometric patterns and motifs nongeometris. While batik is victorious, isen-isen which can be the point, and tendrils or lines, filling the entire background of the fabric, something that is very rarely done anymore because it takes a long time in the process. Batik, as a technique to make ornaments, perhaps eventually will belong to a few people only.

Ninuk Mardiana Pambudy Kompas journalist.
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The Making of Batik - About Java and Indonesia

Posted by Seto El Kahfi on Saturday, 1 December 2012

The Making of Batik - Batik is originally from Indonesia. This kind of cloth is distinct from other cloth from different country. The pattern of the cloth is unique and have a sense of art. This is Indonesia culture in fashion form. And then let's figure out how to make a batik from scratch. This is thoose steps.

1. Nganji - The Making of Batik from Indonesia


Nganji - The Making of Batik from Indonesia


Nganji process - from Handbook of Indonesian Batik. Before being labeled, usually mori washed first with water until the starch is lost original and clean, then the kanji again. Motif batik should be coated with a starch with a certain thickness, if too thick will attach less good night and if too thin then the result tonight will be "mblobor" which will be difficult to remove.

With the highest quality Mori [Primisima] does not need to be starched again, because the thickness of the kanji already qualified.

2. Ngemplong - The Making of Batik 

Usually just a smooth mori need dikemplong before dibatik. Mori blue for direct printed batik can usually be done without the preparatory work.  The purpose of ngemplong is for mori become slippery and loose. For this purpose mori put on a chip of wood and pounded regularly by wood bat as well.

Mori will be easier so the results are better.

3. Nglowong - Attachment malam[candles] first

Done kemplong, mori is ready to work. Batik fabrication technique consists of the main job, starting from the main job, starting with nglowong is tasting or batik motifs above mori using the canting. Nglowong on the cloth is also called ngengreng and after it continued with nerusi on the other side.

4. Nembok - sticking the second malam

Before dipped into dye, the desired part remains white, should be closed by night. Layers tonight proverbial wall to hold substances do not seep gets perwarna for the closed night. Therefore, this work is called a brick, if there is seepage due tembokannya less powerful then the white should be visible colored line 2 which will reduce the beauty of batik. That is why the night the wall must be strong and resilient, others by night klowong that actually should not be too resilient to be easily scraped.

5. Medel - first the dye Dyeing

Medel goal is to give a dark blue color as base color fabric. Relic of this work takes several days for using indigo dye [Javanese language: tom].This dye is very slow to absorb the cloth so it must be done over and over again, now with modern color material can be done quickly.

6. Ngerok - eliminate malam from klowong process

The part that will be in soga for brown, scraped with Cawuk [sort of a blunt knife is made of zinc] to get rid of his night.

7. Mbironi - use of malam into three

The next job adalam Mbironi, which consists of closure with wax cloth parts that remain are expected to blue, while the part that will be in soga remain open. Mbironi job is done on two sides of the fabric.

8. Nyoga - The Making of Batik 


Nyoga is a time consuming process, because the dye into soga. If using natural soga, was not just one or two times only, should be repeated. Each time immersion al fresco had dried. By using synthetic soga then this process can be shortened only half an hour. The term is taken from the word menyoga certain tree which the tree produces skin color soga [brown] when immersed in water.

9. Nglorod - The Making of Batik 

After obtaining the desired color, the fabric had undergone a process again that night which still lag mori should be eliminated, the way to put into boiling water, called Nglorod. 

10. Nyoga - second Dipping

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Introducing Tanjidor - Batavian Music Culture

Posted by Seto El Kahfi on Wednesday, 21 November 2012

Introducing Tanjidor - One of the tribes who live in Jakarta is betawi tribe. Betawi word comes from the word "Batavia" which is the former name of Jakarta. Betawi tribe was born in 1923 beginning with the establishment Perkoempoelan Kaoem Betawi. This is known because during the colonial era, including the Dutch who diligently conducting a census, but by then the existence of Interest Betawi still not listed in the census. Interest actually turned out to previously existing Betawi, but not yet organized. 

Ondel Ondel Betawi

The Existing of Perkumpulan Betawi

So with his existing Perkoempoelan Kaoem Betawi, recognized the existence of Interest Betawi start. Since then the Arts Orchestra Tanjidor began to expand along with the existence Perkoempoelan Kaoem Betawi. Betawi tribe is a mix of various ethnic groups such as Javanese, Sundanese, Malay, Sumbawa, Ambon and Chinese. The combination is evident in the dielectric and a wide range of arts Betawi Betawi. Betawi arts such as Gambang Kromong, Tambourine, and Tanjidor Keroncong monument. Kromo xylophone is a musical art that is still linked to Chinese tradition while Rebana related to Arab art music. This attachment is shown in the form of music and tone of the instrument by instrument kelurkan the music. Portuguese art is set for the Keroncong monument.
Tanjidor Trumphet

The History of Tanjidor

Tanjidor is One of Indonesia's cultural wealth is owned exclusively ethnic Betawi people are still shades of the Netherlands. But there is also the argument that Portugal Art is the background for the emergence of Tanjidor.Namun if we question when in fact this Tanjidor Art born? So the answer is at the time of colonization Belanda.Ternyata Art Tanjidor born before slavery was abolished in the late 18th century. Tanjidor originally played by Dutch slaves. When the Dutch came to power, its officials have houses scattered around Batavia. So the slaves also was assigned there. In his spare time, slaves were often playing a music in a group.

Tanjidor Orchestra Batavian Music Culture

Tanjidor Orchestra
Tanjidor is the art of music played by a group of people. It is often called Tanjidor Orchestra. Tanjidor orchestra evolved since the 19th century after the rise in Perkoempolan Kaoen Betawi.
Tanjidor consists of piston, trombone, tenor, clarinet, bass, and drums. Piston, tombon, tenor, and bass clarinet is a wind instrument, the alar sendangkan drum percussion. When we went to Jakarta, her special interest in a residential area Betawi, we will find the Betawi wedding ceremony accompanied by the Orchestra Tanjidor.

Tanjidor Performing as Batavian Music Culture

Tanjdor orchestra frequently played folk songs such as barley. In addition to marriage, some events are generally dimeriahan by Orchestra Tanjidor is circumcision, public events such as Indonesia and kemerekaan commemorate the new year both AD and Lunar. In the event Orchestra tanjidor generally around while playing music that is often called ngamen.Ngamen done by walking barefoot.
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History of Majapahit Kingdom in Indonesia

Posted by Seto El Kahfi on Tuesday, 20 November 2012

Raden Wijaya who is pursuing Kediri troops to the north forced to flee after learning that Singhasari fall, while Arddharaja betray Kadiri. With the help of the village headman Kudadu Raden Wijaya to cross into Madura, in order to seek protection and assistance from Wiraraja in Sungeneb.

History of Majapahit Kingdom in Indonesia


History of Majapahit Kingdom in Indonesia
On the advice and assurance Wiraraja, Raden Wijaya devote themselves to Jayakatwang in Kadiri, and he was awarded land in the village of Drag, a top aid Madurese village was opened and became fertile by the name of Majapahit.
Meanwhile, China's army of 20,000 men armed with a ship that transported 1000 to one year has landed in Tuban and near Surabaya, in order to reply to insult Krtanegara of Kublai Khan.

Raden Wijaya The Royal Family of Majapahit

Here utilized Raden Wijaya is merged into the Chinese army to demolish the Kadiri, who finally surrendered Jayakatwang. But when Chinese troops arrived at the port to come back, Raden Wijaya attacked the Chinese army, so many leave the victims while continuing to return to China.

With the help of Singhasari troops who returned from Sumatra, Raden Wijaya the first king of Majapahit kingdom holds Krtarajasa Jayawardhana (1293-1309), have 4 (four) wives, where the oldest named Tribhuwana / Dara Petak and the youngest named Gayatri is also called Rajapatni and from him was ongoing Majapahit kings next.

The Royal Family of Majapahit
The Royal Family of Majapahit

Then substitute the proper Gayatri, but since he has left the worldly life that is to become nuns, then his son was the one who named Bhre Kahuripan representing ibunnya ascended the throne with the title Tribhuwananottunggadewi Jayawisnuwardhani (1328-1360).

Gajah Mada From Majapahit Empire

Year 1331 came the uprising in Sadeng and Keta (Besuki area). So the governor replaced Majapahit Pu Naga Daha governor of Gajah Mada, so that the rebellion can be crushed.
Gajah Mada in showing his devotion, vowed called Palapa Oath (meaning salt and spices), namely: that he will not feel the palapa, before the whole archipelago under the Majapahit rule. Or for those of Java, called mutih.

The Royal Family of Majapahit
The first step, Gajah Mada led the troops conquered Bali in the year 1343 with Adityawarman (son majapahit Malay descent who served as the Majapahit Wrddhamantri title Arrya dewaraja Adutya pu), who had conquered Krtanagara but was free again. Then Adityawarman placed in Malay as the title wrddhamantri Arrya Dewaraja Pu Aditya.

Adityawarman From Majapahit Empire

Adityawarman in Sumatra Mauliwarmmadewa reorganize the government that we know in the year 1286. He expanded powers to regional Pagarruyung (Minangkabau) and appointed himself as maharajadhiraja (1347), although against Gayatri he still claims to be the leading paramedics and still incest with the king's daughter.
Year 1360 Gayatri's death, then Tribhuwanottunggadewi even abdication, and submit to the son of Hayam Wuruk, who was born in the year 1334 upon her marriage with KErtawardddhana.
Hayam Wuruk rule with a degree Rajasanagara (1360-1369), with Gajah Mada as his patih. All of the Indonesian archipelago Malacca peninsula even flying the banner of Majapahit, friendly relations with neighboring countries is robust. Palapa Oath accomplished, experienced the golden age of Majapahit.

The Rebellion and The War

Once there, just stay Sunda Baduga Sri Maharaja-ruled that according to the inscription Batutulis (Bogor) of 1333 is the king Pakwan Pajajaran (son and grandson of Rahyang Dewaniskala Rahyang Niskalawastu geographical) that can not be conquered Majapahit Kingdom, despite 2 (two) times attacked. By way of deception finally in the year 1357 Sri Baduga along the Sunda can magnifying brought to the Majapahit and brutally destroyed in the field bubat. Because this war is very interesting, particularly the core story is told by Song Sudayana Bubat War, as below.

Raden Wijaya ruled firmly and wisely, peaceful and safe country, the composition of government similar to Singhasari, plus 2 (two), the minister of rakryan Rangga and rakryan Tumenggung. While Wiraraja that much help was given very high positions of power in the region coupled with Lumajang until Blambangan.
He died in 1309, leaving a 2 (two) daughters of Gayatri nicknamed Bhre Kahuripan and Bhre Daha, and one boy from Dara Petak is Kalagemet / Jayanegara who in 1309 ascended the throne. To honor, Raden Wijaya dicandikan at Shiva temple on the Temple Sumberjati Simping south of Blitar and at temples in the city of Buda in Antahpura Majapahit. Harihara statue is a manifestation, in the form of Vishnu and Shiva in a single statue. While Tribhuwana glorified in the temple in the southwest Rimbi Mojokerto, manifested as Parvati.

Jayanegara Era of Majapahit

Kalagemet / Jayanegara (1309-1328), who in an inscription is considered as an incarnation of Vishnu with the state badge Minadwaya (two fish) in the reign many faces revolts against the Majapahit from those still loyal to Krtarajasa. The first rebellion actually has started since Krtarajasa still alive, namely by Rangga Lawe, located in Tuban, due to unsatisfied because he did not become governor of Majapahit but Nambi, Wiraraja child. But his efforts (1309) can be thwarted.
The second rebellion in the year 1311 by Sora, a rakryan in Majapahit, but failed. Then the third in the year 1316, by his patih itself is Nambi, Lumajang and fortresses from the area in Pajarakan. He is also a family was crushed. The next rebellion by Kuti in 1319, which had occupied the capital of Majapahit, the king fled under the cover of the palace guards who called Bhayangkari as many as 15 people under the leadership of Gajah Mada. But with the aid of troops who are still loyal Majapahit, Gajah Mada with pounding Bhayangkarinya Kuti, and finally Jayanegara to continue his reign.
Jayanegara's death in 1328 without an offspring. He dicandikan in Sila plot and Bubat with manifestation as Vishnu, and in Sukalila as Amoghasiddhi, where the temples it can not be known again.
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